Electricity: is all about electrons moving. When electrons move something happens. This is because electrons carry energy places.
First, electrons are the parts of an atom that float around the center. Electrons have a negative charge. They are not as tightly bound to the atom as the stuff in the center – where the positive charge is - so electrons can move. Lastly, in order to understand electricity you must understand electric force: objects with opposite charges attract each other and objects with the same charge repel or push each other away. So electrons repel or push away other electrons.
If electrons can move easily through something we call that something a conductor. If it’s hard for electrons to move, we call that something an insulator. In insulators electrons pretty much just sit where they land and do not move.
Now, electrons can move to another nearby atom or rub off the atoms of one surface and on to the atoms of another surface. This is what happens in static electricity. When you rub a balloon against your shirt some electrons from your shirt will move onto the balloon. Now your balloon has a negative charge and your shirt has a positive charge and the balloon sticks to you shirt because opposites attract. The balloon and your shirt are both insulators. When water droplets in a cloud rub together electrons build up in the cloud, when enough electrons build up they are attracted to either another cloud or to the ground which creates lightning. Static Electricity Animals ; 4th Static Electricity Races
Current electricity is what happens when electrons move along a path like a wire versus building up on something like in static electricity. A wire is a conductor so electrons can easily move through it. Electrons’ flowing through a wire is a basic example of a circuit. Basic Circuit Circuit looks like the word circle, this is important to remember because electrons need a complete path in order to flow; if the path is broken nothing happens. Name-Tag Circuits Electrons flow from a power source, to a component and back to the power source. When the electrons get to the component something happens. Something happening like a light turns on, a buzzer sounds, etc.. Makey-Makey Circuits Pop-up Circuit Card